What is Testicular Cancer?
The most common testicular cancer is the so-called germ cell tumor (GCT), an infrequent neoplasm with a very high cure rate.
The key to treatment success depends both on the correct use of diagnostic means (especially CT and tumor markers) and on the integration of the various therapeutic weapons available: chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy.
The GCT represents about 1-1.5% of all human neoplasms, and is the most common malignancy in males between the ages of 15 and 40. The incidence of testicular tumors is 3-6 new cases per year for 100,000 males in western countries, with an increase in incidence observed over the past 30 years.
About 95% are primary testicular neoplasms, while in 5% of cases there is an extratesticular primitive site, more frequently in the mediastinum or retroperitoneum. In 40% of cases it is pure seminoma, while about 60% are non-seminomatous tumors or mixed tumors.
Well-defined risk factors are represented by the presence of a tumor in the contralateral testis or of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN), a history of undescended testicle.
What is Testicular Cancer's clinic?
Testicular Cancer appears as a nodule of hard consistency on palpation inside the scrotal bag. Therefore, in terms of prevention and early diagnosis, testicular self-examination is fundamental.
How is Testicular Cancer's diagnosis?
Following the visit with testicular palpation and suspicion of neoplasm, a testicular ultrasound must be performed and the request of specific tumor markers in the blood that are represented by alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG.
The actual diagnosis, however, is made at the operating table with an operation that is called "exploratory", during which, with the sleeping patient, a small fragment of the lesion is taken and sent for histological examination, if the response of the pathologist is of neoplasia, we perform an orchifunicolectomy.
How is Testicular Cancer treated?
The basic therapy is as above reported the orchifunicolectomy, in which the testicle is completely removed and the spermatic cord up to its emergence from the peritoneal cavity. At the same time, a silicone testicular prosthesis can be placed with an eminently aesthetic function.
Then, based on the final histological examination, we will proceed with subsequent treatments that may be chemo-radiotherapy depending on the specific histotype of the tumor.
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Nursing Home "Villa Donatello"
Piazzale Donatello, 14 - 50132 Florence
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Medical Office "Leonardo da Vinci"
Via Colletta, 24r - 50136 Florence
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