Andrological Dictionary

Benign increase in volume of a glandular structure (eg. prostate adenoma).

Drug acting at the muscle fiber level of the bladder neck causing a relaxation and an easier bladder emptying.

Drug determining an erection of the penis. It exists in the form of vials to be injected by microinjection into the penis, or as a cream to apply on the glans.

Abnormality characterized by the lack of development of the testes.

Antiandrogen drug
Drug that blocks the action of testosterone at the level of some peripheral organs such as the prostate.

Assisted Reproductive Tecnique (ART)
Medical and surgical procedures that can be applied in cases of couple infertility for a period longer than 12-24 months.

Impaired semen quality characterized by reduced sperm mobility.

Absence of sperm in the semen. Secretive azoospermia is the absence of sperm in the semen by testicular origin. Obstructive azoospermia is the absence of sperm in the semen linked to damage to the seminal tract level.

Acronym for "benign prostatic hyperplasia". It indicates the histopathological process of the prostate gland increase.

Fungal infectious agent responsible of male and female genital infections.

Cervico-urethral obstruction
Clinical condition characterized by urinary disorders often due to an increased development of the central portion of the prostate gland.

Bacterial infectious agent responsible of male and female urogenital infections.

surgical removal of the foreskin. It indicated in the presence of a phimosis or of a foreskin sclerosis, conditions in which the preputial ring is tight and does not allow the sliding of the foreskin over the glans. The ritual circumcision is a circumcision surgery performed for religious reasons, in the absence of phimosis.

Undescended testicle. Normally the testicles at birth, or at the latest within the first year of life, descend into the scrotal sac.

Alteration of seminal fluid characterized by a sperm concentration < 1 million / ml.

CT (or CAT)
Computerized Axial Tomography is a radiological investigation, performed with or without medical contrast agent, which allows to visualize and study the internal organs.

Male reproductive organ producing sperm and testosterone.

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
This is a common urological examination characterized by insertion into the rectum of a gloved and lubricated finger of the doctor, so as to perceive the shape, size and texture of the prostate through the wall of the rectum.

Emission of semen during sexual intercourse.

The emptying of the bladder disorder that manifests itself in children as involuntary urination during sleep. Is called primary when it occurs in a child who has never achieved full control of the sphincters, it is the child instead of when it occurs after the child had achieved control of his bowels. Often it does not have an organic cause and regresses spontaneously after 7-8 years of age.

The structure above the didymus.

congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal presence of the urethra at the level of the dorsal surface of the penis.

Erectile dysfunction
Inability to obtain and / or maintain an erection sufficient to perform satisfactory sexual intercourse for both partners.

Erection drug test
Diagnostic investigation for the evaluation of erectile function. It is performed by injecting into the corpora cavernosa of the penis a vasodilating drug, usually the Alprostadil, able to increase the blood-flow.

Sliding portion of skin covering the glans.

Thin piece of skin connecting the foreskin to the glans. Sometimes it can be short and create sliding problems of the foreskin to the glans.

Section surgery and stretching the penile fraenum.

Mucosal semiconical structure that is at the end of the penis.

Gleason score
Numerical system to classify the degree of differentiation prostatic cancer. Higher is the Gleason score, more the cancer is undifferenziated and aggressive.

Hormones producted from pituitary gland that stimulate the gonads.

Male (testes) or female(ovaries) reproductive organs.

Gonorrhea or gonorrhea
Venereal disease, caused by bacteria infecting agent (gonococcus). It is characterized by an incubation period of 1-10 days after infection. The patient feels a burning sensation during urination and simultaneously appears a yellowish secretion from the urethra.

Presence of blood in semen.

Hydatid of Morgagni
Small appendage located on the head of the testis is an embryonic remaining without any function. He may have a twist that involves the sudden onset of acute pain and swelling of the testis; this clinical situation may simulate the torsion of the spermatic cord.

A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac surrounding a testicle that results in swelling of the scrotum, the loose bag of skin underneath the penis.

Congenital abnormality characterized by the external urethral meatus position placed on the ventral part of the penis.

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)
Viral infectious agent responsible for male or female genital infections.

ICSI (IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection)
Laboratory Assisted Reproduction procedure consisting of a single sperm injection into an oocyte.

The persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. Modernly it comes to Erectile Dysfunction (ED).

Intracavernous therapy
A medical procedure by injecting into the cavernous bodies of the penis of a drug, usually alprostadil, that can procure an erection.

In Vitro Fertilization / Embryo Tranfer (IVF/ET)
A particular procedure of Assisted Reproductive Tecnique consisting, after ovarian pick-up, of an introduction of a single spermatozoa into an oocyte, creating an embryo and its subsequent transfer into the woman's uterus.

IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination)
Procedure for the first level in the field of Assisted Reproduction Tecnique in which, prior to ovulation monitoring of the woman, fits in vivo semen capacitated at the time of ovulation.

No word currently inserted.

No word currently inserted.

No word currently inserted.

Bacterial infectious agent responsible for male and female urogenital infections.

Need to urinate during the night.

NPT test
Test monitoring of spontaneous nocturnal erections. It can be performed in the course of diagnostic definition of erectile dysfunction.

Alteration of the seminal fluid, characterized by decreased sperm count.

Testicular pain.

Surgery in which we proceed in case of undescended testicle to its positioning in the scrotal sac.

Surgical removal of the testicle.

Inflammatory disease of the epididymis and of the testis.

Emergency condition that can occur in patients with phimosis when the glans is discovered, the narrowing of the foreskin can cause a state of venous stasis, with painful swelling of the glans and therefore impossible to bring the glans inside the foreskin.

PDE5-Is (Inhibitors of type 5 Phosphodiesterase)
Classes of drugs (Sildenafil, Tadalafil, Vardenafil, Avanafil) that acting with an enzymatic block at the level of the cavernous bodies of the penis improves erection.

Peyronie's Disease (PD)
Acquired inflammatory disorder of the tunica albuginea (a structure which covers the penis in its interior). It is characterized by the formation of a plaque of fibrous tissue which may be associated with erectile dysfunction and pain on erection. There may be difficult of penetration as a result of the curvature and a condition may be accompanied by some impairment of erectile capacity.

Surgery of penile amputation, which can be partial or total; It is performed usually in the presence of a penis cancer.

Penile implants
Silicone cylinders inserted through a surgical procedure inside the cavernous bodies of the penis, when other therapies are not able to solve an erectile dysfunction. There are various types: hydraulic and non-hydraulic.

Penile reconstructive surgery.

Congenital anomaly consisting of a ring narrowing of the foreskin that covers the glans, which does not allow the full externalization of the glans itself. It can be corrected with a circumcision surgery.

Urination at short frequent intervals without increase in daily volume of urinary output.

Premature ejaculation
Uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration.

Prostatic adenomectomy
Open-sky or trans urethral surgical procedure performed to remove a benign prostatic nodule that, growing up, could represent an obstacle to the normal emptying of the bladder.

Prostatic biopsy
Diagnostic procedure that involves taking samples of prostate tissue in order to subject them to histological examination, usually in the suspicion of prostate cancer. The biopsy can be performed percutaneously transperineal, transrectal or transurethral. The transperineal and transrectal biopsy usually are performed by ultrasound guidance.

Prostatic cancer
Is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

The prostate is a fibromuscular organ and glandular of the genito-urinary tract. It has the size of a chestnut, is located below the bladder and surrounds the urethra.

Inflammatory disease of the prostate gland, characterized by type stinging localized pain at perineum level (between the root of the scrotum and anus) sometimes associated with fever; this condition can be acute (sudden onset and frank symptoms) or chronic.

Acronym for "Prostate Specific Antigen": is a protein produced by prostate gland.

P S A test
The PSA test is a blood test used primarily to screen for prostate cancer. The test measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in your blood. The PSA may increase in prostatic cancer, but also in prostatitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

No word currently inserted.

Radical prostatectomy
Surgical removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles. This surgery is performed as a therapy in the presence of prostate cancer.

Seminal vesicles
Each of a pair of glands, located near to prostate gland, which open into the vas deferens and secrete many of the components of semen.

Spermatic fluid (or semen)
Whitish and dense liquid coming out from the urethra containing spermatozoa and the secretion of the prostate and seminal vesicles.

Spermatic cord
Structure formed by deferens, nerves, arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels, which is the stalk of the testis. It is covered by muscle structures and runs in the inguinal canal to the scrotal sac.

Benign cystic accumulation of sperm that arises from the head of the epididymis.

Semen analysis which isolates the growth of any pathogenic microorganisms in cases of suspected urogenital infection.

Semen analysis, which allows to evaluate some parameters in terms of fertility, such as the number, mobility and morphology of spermatozoa.

STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)
Infections that are commonly spread by sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

Stenosis (or Stricture)
An abnormal pathological narrowing in a tubular organ or structure of urinary or genital apparatus (as in urethra or ureters).

TEFNA (Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration)
Percutaneous surgical procedure in which in some cases of azoospermia proceed with a fine needle in removal of sperm from the testicles.

Alteration of spermiogram characterized by the presence of high percentages of spermatozoa with altered morphology.

TESE / MICRO-TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction)
Open sky surgical procedure to pick up, with the possible aid of optical magnification ( operator microscope or loupes), a small portion of tissue from the testicle and to extract, in case of azoospermia, the few viable sperm cells present in that tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Testis (or testicle)
The male reproductive gland, the source of spermatozoa and the androgens, normally occurring paired in an external scrotum.

Testicular atrophy
Reduction in testicular volume, resulting in loss of function. It may be unilateral or bilateral.

Male hormone produced by the testes and in small part by the adrenal glands. The testosterone stimulates male sexual activity and growth of the sex organs, including the prostate.

Transrectal ultrasound (or TRUS)
Ultrasound examination of the prostate performed transrectally. It is performed by placing an ultrasound probe within the rectum, where the prostate is easily accessible, only separated from the anterior wall of the rectum. This exam measures the characteristics and the volume of the prostate.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (or TURP)
Surgery procedure used to treat urinary problems due to an enlarged prostate. A combined visual and surgical instrument (resectoscope) is inserted through the tip of penis and into the tube that carries urine from bladder (urethra).

Torsion of spermatic cord
Torsion of the spermatic cord on its axis. This gives rise to a mechanical obstruction of the spermatic vessels, resulting in ischemia and venous stasis. If ischemia is prolonged (more than 6 hours), causes irreversible damage to the testicle. It is manifested by acute testicular pain for no apparent reason and scrotal swelling. It requires urgent action untwisting, which may occur through external or surgically manipulation.

Bacterial infectious agent responsible for male and female urogenital infections.

Endoscopic examination which consists in the ureter display by means of an instrument called a ureteroscope. The ureteroscope, inserted through the urethra into the bladder, is then introduced into the urethral meatus and traced along the ureter, to the intrarenal cavity. It can be performed for diagnostic purposes or, with the use of appropriate probes and appropriate instruments, in operational purpose.

The tube that carries urine from the bladder.

Urethral valves
Congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of mucosal folds at urethral level that cause considerable obstruction to urine flow.

Urethral swab
Cultural examination to be performed at the level of the male urethra and female to search for specific infectious agents.

Radiography of the urethra and bladder that utilizes a radiopaque substance.

Endoscopic examination for the study of the urethra and bladder. It is performed by introducing an instrument called cystoureheroscope at the level of the external urethral meatus until you get into the bladder.

Bleeding from the urethra regardless of urination.

Urinary urgency
An immediate unstoppable urge to urinate, due to a sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder.

Functional investigation of the lower urinary tract. It allows to assess the overall functioning of the bladder and of urethral sphincters, both from the functional point of view. It includes several surveys: cystometry, the study pressure / flow, urethral pressure profile, the uroflowmetry, the videourodynamic examination.

Urodynamic investigations for the study of the urinary stream. It is executed by the patient to urinate in a container connected to an electronic instrument. The main parameters are provided: maximum flow, average flow, urination time, drained volume.

Electronic instrument that allows for the uroflowmetry. It may be portable, as a tool in its own right, or fixed, added to a more comprehensive device during urodynamic. And 'it composed by computer and by a flow detector.

Vas deferens
Tubular structure originating from the epididymis and carrying sperm from the testicles to the prostatic urethra.

Dilation of the veins of the spermatic plexus, usually due to blood reflux in the internal spermatic vein, especially as a result of an increase in abdominal pressure. It is usually painless, it can cause infertility.

Surgical procedure to remove a varicocele.

Surgical cutting and sealing of part of each vas deferens, typically as a means of sterilization.

No word currently inserted.

No word currently inserted.

No word currently inserted.

No word currently inserted.